Chinese activity in the Middle East has been a lesson in non-involvement and support for local economic projects; yet, as the Belt and Road Initiative kicks off, China’s role in the MENA region will inevitably change.
The European Union’s foreign policy since the Arab Spring has fluctuated between outdated economic initiatives and political misreadings; instead the EU needs more internal unity and a better understanding of needs in the Arab World
The Middle East and North Africa would be better off with diminished Western ambitions in the region. However, rather than coalescing around a more manageable and realistic set of goals, the West is beset by confusion and growing discord
Despite the rise of the continent’s first populist government, in its relations with the Middle East, Italy shows remarkable continuity with its recent past in its emphasis on migration and energy security
With a modern diplomatic history going back to Gandhi and Nehru, India views its role in the Middle East as a supporter of multiple powers. But how long can India’s commitment to a multipolar Middle East continue?