Adel Abdel Ghafar is a fellow at the Foreign Policy program at Brookings Institution and the Brookings Doha Center, where he served as acting director of research from 2016 to 2017. He is the author of Egyptians in Revolt: The Political Economy of Labor and Student Mobilizations 1919–2011 and is the lead editor of The Contemporary Middle East: Revolution or Reform? On Twitter: @AdelAGhafar.

Writing in the Cairo Review