Jasmine El-Gamal is a nonresident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East. She served as a Middle East advisor and special assistant at the U.S. Department of Defense from 2008 to 2013 and as a special assistant to the undersecretary of defense for policy between 2013 and 2015. As a visiting fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations from October 2018 to March 2019, she authored the policy paper “The Displacement Dilemma: Should Europe Help Syria’s Refugees Return Home?” On Twitter: @jasmineelgamal. 

Writing in the Cairo Review